Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? ↩, The quotations from the Daily Telegraph, London Times, and New York Herald, as well as the information about Osei Bonsu, are all from Ivor Wilks, Asante in the Nineteenth Century: The Structure and Evolution of a Political Order (Cambridge University Press, 1975), pp. Such cases are particularly troublesome, because Twin Seven Seven wouldn’t have been the creator that he was if he’d been unaware of and unaffected by the work of artists in other places. Comment: This text offers a clear and effective overview of philosophical issues concerning cultural property, and uses a range of cultural and artistic examples. Here is a cautionary tale about the international system we have created. They had heard the rumblings about a new wave of iconoclasm, and they took them seriously. "Whose Culture? London. ... Summary: In this chapter, Appiah offers a cosmopolitan critique of the concept of cultural property/patrimony. Mythology Of The Antiquities Market. If not, not. 16, No. Perhaps the matter of biological descent is a distraction: proponents of the patrimony argument would surely be undeterred if it turned out that the Nok sculptures were made by eunuchs. The reason many sculptures and paintings were made and bought was that they should be looked at and lived with. A Culture of Human Rights and the Right to Culture. Or consider objects of contemporary ritual significance that were acquired legally from people around the world in the course of European colonial expansion. If an object is central to the cultural or religious life of a community, there is a human reason for it to find its place back with them. New York, London: W. W. Nortion & Company. Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? There is, however, a more important reason: I actually want museums in Europe to be able to show the riches of the society they plundered in the years when my grandfather was a young man. Community Engagement in Small Cities is a major contribution to the growing body of literature on the special character and value of small cities, especially aspects of their unique culture. How does this relate to you and your organization? Whose Culture Is It Anyway? Because they were removed from archaeological sites illegally, much of what we would most like to know about this culture—much that we could have found out had the sites been preserved by careful archaeology—may now never be known. Part of what makes the grand phrase “cultural patrimony” so powerful, I suspect, is that it conflates, in confusing ways, the two primary uses of that confusing word “culture.” On the one hand, cultural patrimony refers to cultural artifacts: works of art, religious relics, manuscripts, crafts, musical instruments, and the like. Gates makes a great point in his essay. More cultural patrimony for Nigeria, right? Quite simply, the American story of how we developed our unique, enduring culture is a model for all us to emulate. A blog about conservatives, culture, and conservative culture. Mali can pass a law against digging up and exporting the wonderful sculpture made in the old city of Djenne-jeno. “Though we readily deplore the theft of paintings from Italian churches,” he wrote, “if a painting is rotting in a church from lack of resources to care for it, and the priest sells it for money to repair the roof and in the hope that the purchaser will give the painting the care it needs, then the problem begins to look different.”5. In the fall of 2000, Dr. Bucherer, with the help of Afghan museum officials, had crated up these endangered artifacts, ready to be shipped to Switzerland for temporary safekeeping. By emphasizing the common features of our humanity and the tenuousness of certain cultural identity claims, he puts pressure on conceptions of cultural property that would exclude others, particularly those that have a nationalist character. But what does it mean, exactly, for something to belong to a people? The problem was already there in the preamble to the 1954 Hague Convention that I quoted a little while back: “…each people makes its contribution to the culture of the world.” That sounds like whenever someone makes a contribution, his or her “people” makes a contribution, too. I am not for sending every object “home.” Many of the Asante art objects now in Europe, America, and Japan were sold or given by people who had the right to dispose of them under the laws that then prevailed, laws that were perfectly reasonable. But if Nok civilization came to an end and its people became something else, why should they have a special claim on those objects, buried in the forest and forgotten for so long? 'Building a city depends on how people combine the traditional economic factors of land, labour and capital.' Whose culture is it anyway? Whose culture is it, anyway? Here there is an aesthetic argument for return. Suppose that from the beginning, Mali had been encouraged and helped by UNESCO to exercise its trustee-ship of the Djenne-jeno terra cottas by licensing digs and educating people to recognize that objects removed carefully from the earth with accurate records of location are of greater value, even to collectors, than objects without this essential element of provenance. But if they are of cultural value—as the Nok sculptures undoubtedly are—it strikes me that it would be better for them to think of themselves as trustees for humanity. Your culture is represented in your personal leadership example. Hundreds of millions of dollars’ worth of art has been stolen from the museums of Nigeria alone, almost always with the complicity of insiders. Suppose, further, that the Malians had decided that in order to maintain and build their collections they should auction off some works they own. His latest book is The Lies That Bind: Rethinking Identity. Whose Culture Is It Anyway? ↩, Merryman, “Two Ways of Thinking About Cultural Property,” p. 852. Even with increased awareness of diversity throughout our … Atul Gawande is a surgeon, a public-health researcher, and the chairman of the health-care venture Haven. So you might think there was a case for giving people an incentive to share it. In these circumstances—and with this history—it has been natural to protest against the pillaging of “cultural patrimony.”1 Through a number of declarations from UNESCO and other international bodies, a doctrine has evolved concerning the ownership of many forms of cultural property. We don’t know whether the terra-cotta Nok sculptures, made sometime between about 800 BC and 200 AD, were commissioned by kings or commoners; we don’t know whether the people who made them and the people who paid for them thought of them as belonging to the kingdom, to a man, to a lineage, or to the gods. Chapter 13. They also… Myself, I subscribe to the "politics is downstream from culture" argument. outline of the development of the relevant international law in John Henry Merryman’s classic paper “Two Ways of Thinking About Cultural Property,” The American Journal of International Law, Vol. London. Consider, for example, objects whose meaning would be deeply enriched by being returned to the setting from which they were taken—site-specific art of one kind or another. The Italians? And the history of plunder—the barbarism beneath the civility—is often real enough, as I’m reminded whenever I visit my hometown in the Asante region of Ghana. If the laws are international laws, then they govern everyone. The New York Times Archives. But which people exactly made that contribution? Relevance. Des milliers de livres avec la livraison chez vous en 1 jour ou en magasin avec -5% de réduction . Because what it unites are nations, not human beings, it is impotent when what humanity needs is not what some state has decided to do. Dana Irina - 2011 - Journal for Communication and Culture 1 (2):30-48. New York, London: W. W. Nortion & Company. Subscribe Today. You might also show your respect for the culture it came from by holding on to it because you value it yourself. And the human interests in question are the interests of all of humankind. Still it will be a long time before Kumasi has a collection as rich both in our own material culture and in works from other places as the collections destroyed by Sir Garnet Wolseley and the founder of the Boy Scouts. When we’re trying to interpret the concept of cultural property, we ignore at our peril what lawyers, at least, know: property is an institution, created largely by laws, which are best designed by thinking about how they can serve the human interests of those whose behavior they govern. While the government of Nigeria reasonably exercises trusteeship, the Nok sculptures belong in the deepest sense to all of us. Whose culture is it anyway? It’s an equally sensible idea that, when an object is of cultural value, the government has a special obligation to preserve it. People I know who have visited the National Museum in Kabul recount what the staff members there have told them. Required fields are marked *, Unless otherwise stated, all elements of the Diversity Reading List licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Web Design by TELdesign Limited • Theme: Avant by Kaira. Knowledge of Our Skin. It was made not for nations or peoples but for princes or popes or ad majorem gloriam dei. While conservatives sometimes prevail in policy debates, they consistently lose in … The Aban had been completed in 1822. Posted on: March 30th, 2016 by Michael Gates. This text offers a clear and effective overview of philosophical issues concerning cultural property, and uses a range of cultural and artistic examples. Some of the heirs to the kingdom of Benin, the people of South West Nigeria, want the bronze their ancestors cast, shaped, handled, wondered at. Jess Graham, M.S. The Nigerian government will therefore naturally try to preserve such objects for Nigerians. Thursday, October 13, 2016. The Author’s Point In “Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., "Whose Canon Is It, Anyway? Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? New technologies mean that Malians can now see, in however imperfectly reproduced a form, great art from around the planet; and such reproduction will likely improve. So there’s no reason to think that the Nok have no descendants. Another example of astounding cultural misappropriation is the notorious Kasi Mlungu, whose real name is Anita Ronge. 1 decade ago. Would the ideologues of cultural nativism, those experts who insist that archaeological artifacts are meaningless outside their land of origin, find solace in the fact that these works were destroyed by Afghan hands, on Afghan soil? WHOSE CANON IS IT, ANYWAY? Acknowledging our differences allows people to build a strong foundation of community within a society. Even on a grander scale, a Jewish-inspired theme plays out in this gem business of a movie series, whose titles include “Goldfinger” and “Diamonds Are Forever.” And it was going to prove a goldmine. Greece is formally suing the Getty for the recovery of four objects. As someone who grew up in Kumasi, I confess I was pleased when some of this stolen art was returned, thus enriching the new palace museum for locals and for tourists. They could reply that the Nok sculptures were found on the territory of Nigeria. Article by Caroline Lewis. In the American academia of today the formation of curricula is largely dependent on the ethnic composition of the enrolled students. Unesco International Framework For The Protection Of The Cultural Heritage. You do not need to endorse Napoleon’s depredations in northern Africa to think that there is something to be said for allowing people in other countries the chance to see, close up, the arts of one of the world’s great civilizations. Answer Save. Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? Social working within a rural community When we consider culture one initially thinks of one’s ethnic belonging, but culture also relates to historical, social and familial influences resulting in shared values and beliefs by people living within the same physical and often isolated location. In a chapter of his 2006 book Cosmopolitanism, provocatively titled "Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? Subscribe Today. Whose culture is it anyway? It is for them the work of an instant to decide to share a table, and, fueled © 1963-2020 NYREV, Inc. All rights reserved. My friends recall the dead look in a curator’s eyes as he described how the Taliban inspectors responded to these extraordinary artifacts by taking out mallets and pulverizing them in front of him. Thieves Of Baghdad: The Search For Iraq’s Stolen Heritage. The digs encouraged by such a system would have been less well conducted and less informative than proper, professionally administered digs by accredited archaeologists. Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? Framing the problem that way—as an issue for all mankind—should make it plain that it is the value of the cultural property to people and not to peoples that matters. "Whose Culture Is It Anyway" paper states that China has experienced the Americanization way of life, and it has become influenced by American businesses, such as Amway, StudentShare Our website is a unique platform where students can share their papers in a … The partisans of cultural patrimony, instead of praising them for committing needed resources to protecting the national collection, would have excoriated them for betraying their heritage. And UNESCO refused to authorize the shipments. In the nineteenth century, the kings of Asante—like kings everywhere—enhanced their glory by gathering objects from all around their kingdom and around the world. It seems to me reasonable that the decision about those objects should be made by the government in whose soil they are found. Fortunately, Afghan curators, with nobody to turn to, took it on themselves to hide some of the most valuable archaeological finds.4 These curators, including Omara Khan Massoudi, who is now director of the National Museum, did heroic work, and, today, UNESCO is helping with the restoration of damaged art. Cultures, by contrast, can die without physical extinction. By ELIZABETH A. REYES September 17, 2004 Premium content for subscribers. The British Daily Telegraph described it as “the museum, for museum it should be called, where the art treasures of the monarchy were stored.” The London Times’s Winwood Reade wrote that each of its rooms “was a perfect Old Curiosity Shop.” “Books in many languages,” he continued, “Bohemian glass, clocks, silver plate, old furniture, Persian rugs, Kidderminster carpets, pictures and engravings, numberless chests and coffers…. The logic of “cultural patrimony,” however, would call for the goblet to be shipped back to Norway (or, at any rate, to Scandinavia): that’s whose cultural patrimony it is. One connection—the one neglected in talk of cultural patrimony—is the connection not through identity but despite difference. ", Kwame Anthony Appiah argued that objects of cultural value "belong in the deepest sense to all of us" and "are of potential value to all human beings". Mythology Of The Antiquities Market. I don't know. People die when their bodies die. Blackwell. 831–853. It may be a fine gesture to return things to the descendants of their makers—or to offer it to them for sale—but it certainly isn’t a duty. And the artists who made it came from all over Europe. ... Summary. Whose Culture Is It Anyway: A Review and Critique Posted by By Joseph June 30, 2017. Your email address will not be published. It offers a concise summary of the legal scholar John Merryman's classic article in support of internationalism about cultural property (not included in this curriculum). So when I lament the modern thefts from Nigerian museums or Malian archaeological sites or the imperial ones from Asante, it’s because the property rights that were trampled upon in these cases flow from laws that I think are reasonable. Though it was slightly hard to understand, it really made me think about what American culture is exactly. The terra cottas were sold to collectors in Europe and North America who rightly admired them. My people—human beings—made the Great Wall of China, the Sistine Chapel, the Chrysler Building: these things were made by creatures like me, through the exercise of skill and imagination. (Characteristically, perhaps, it took another decade for this decision to turn into an actual act of Congress.) In November, the Metropolitan Museum in New York seemed close to a deal with the Italians to return a two-and-a-half-millennium-old terra-cotta vase from Greece, known as the Euphronios krater. It is for them the work of an instant to decide to share a table, and, fueled Modern thefts have not, of course, been limited to the pillaging of archaeological sites. Museum workers were ordered to open drawers of antiquities by Taliban inspectors, in the wake of Mullah Omar’s February 2001 edict against pre-Islamic art. But the right conclusion for them is not obviously that they should always stay in the country where they were buried. In Whose Culture?, leading figures from universities and museums in the United States and Britain argue that modern nation-states have at best a dubious connection with the ancient cultures they claim to represent, and that archaeology has been misused by nationalistic identity politics. Many of the treasures in the Aban were no doubt war booty as well. Catholicism, Sexual Deviance, and Victorian Gothic Culture (Cambridge Studies in Nineteenth-Century Literature and Culture 51). A growing culture-keeping industry is happy to part adoptive parents from their money; one mom calls it “white women playing Chinese.” When cultural identity is essentialized and sold in this way, Jacobson suggests, it allows white parents to focus on “culture” rather than a child’s race. Zukin, S (1995), ‘Whose Culture? If you sold your artwork, and the buyer, whatever his nationality, wanted to take the painting out of Nigeria, it could refuse permission to export it. Summary Long acknowledged as sites of social construction, family interactions, and what is constructed from those interactions, have become an increasing focus of qualitative research. The problem in Afghanistan under the Taliban wasn’t so much the behavior of UNESCO bureaucrats as the conception of their task imposed upon them by the community of nations. Part of the debate about culture revolves around issues of perspective and ownership. Article by Caroline Lewis. 200–201. WHOSE CANON IS IT, ANYWAY? While conservatives sometimes prevail in policy debates, they consistently lose in … The result is that many fine Djenne-jeno terra cottas were dug up anyway in the 1980s, after the discoveries of the archaeologists Roderick and Susan McIntosh and their team were published. It’s a contribution to the cultural heritage of the world. Small and medium sized cities tend to be overlooked in urban studies literature and this book brings much need attention to the […] Whose City?’ in The Cultures of Cities. In Italy, private citizens are free to own “cultural property,” but not to send it abroad.2. Repatriation of some objects to poor countries with necessarily small museum budgets might just lead to their decay. They knew about the destruction of an ancient Buddhist temple and its artworks by fundamentalist soldiers. Chapter 12. Related Posts: Whose Culture is it Anyway? The result is that many fine Djenne-jeno terra cottas were dug up anyway in the 1980s, after the discoveries of the archaeologists Roderick and Susan McIntosh and their team were published. Part of the obligation, though, is to make those collections more widely available not just in London but elsewhere, through traveling collections, through publications, and through the World Wide Web. If, for example, I sell you a figure from Djenne-jeno with evidence that it came out of the ground in a certain place after the regulations came into force, then I am giving the authorities in the United States, who are committed to the restitution of objects taken illegally out of Mali, the very evidence they need. She has usurped “modish” and “favourable” elements of blackness and has amalgamated them to create her ever so problematic Kasi Mlungu persona. So far cultural property is just like any other property. Thieves Of Baghdad: The Search For Iraq’s Stolen Heritage. Anita has created a whole brand centred on black identity and culture. After all, there is no lack of Viking objects in Norway. This is clearly the wrong way to think about the matter. They are surely among the realest connections we have. We'll take a chunk of our land, do some good economic development to look after everything else, … Much of the greatest art is flamboyantly international; much ignores nationality altogether. Search for more papers by this author. That idea is expressed in the preamble of the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict of May 14, 1954, which was issued by a conference called by UNESCO: Being convinced that damage to cultural property belonging to any people whatsoever means damage to the cultural heritage of all mankind, since each people makes its contribution to the culture of the world…. We will do well to recognize that iconoclasm is as much an expression of nationalism as idolatry: the human community needs to find ways to protect our common heritage from the iconoclasts, even when they are the masters of nations. Disentangling Culture and Eating by Andrea January 18, 2015 Often, in writing about eating disorders, you will come across references to how some consider these disorders to be “culture bound.”…; Whose Culture is it Anyway? More importantly, in a line often ascribed to Picasso, good artists copy, great ones steal; and they steal from everywhere. In the years following the establishment of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, curators at Afghan’s National Museum, in Kabul, grew increasingly worried about the security of the country’s non-Islamic antiquities. It isn’t peoples who experience and value art; it’s men and women. But an experience limited to Malian art—or, anyway, art made on territory that’s now part of Mali—makes no more sense for a Malian than it does for anyone else. She wants not just to know what their swords look like but to stand close to an actual sword, wielded in actual battles, forged by a particular smith. A couple of decades later, Major Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell (yes, the founder of the Boy Scouts) was dispatched once more to Kumasi, this time to demand that the new king, Prempeh, submit to British rule. By ELIZABETH A. REYES September 17, 2004 Premium content for subscribers. 4 (October 1986), pp. In the journal "Whose Culture Is It, Anyway," author Henry Louis Gate Jr. outline the connection between race/ethnicity and secondary education or higher learning institutions.However, that is that topic is more geared towards the opening part of the purpose of his journal entry. Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? There must be an Akan proverb with that message. How would the concept of cultural patrimony apply to cultural objects whose current owners acquired them legally in the normal way? Upon reviewing an organizational strategy from an HR client recently, I came across an interesting finding. The problem is that it doesn’t have enough money. We could make millions off of it easily, but we're just going to leave it the way it is. It has been too easy to lose sight of the global constituency. by Henry Louis Gates Jr? But mightn’t all this have been better than what actually happened? These days, museum curators have grown uneasily self-conscious about the origins of such cultural treasures, especially those that are archaeological in nature or that come from the global south. In view of these enormously high prices, you can see why so many Malians were willing to help export their “national heritage.”. The Culture Debate in the U.S.: Whose Culture Is This, Anyway? Some people would still have avoided the rules. Because perhaps the greatest of the many ironies of the sacking of Kumasi in 1874 is that it deprived my hometown of a collection that was, in fact, splendidly cosmopolitan. In general, he supports a cosmopolitan/internationalist approach to cultural property that promotes the exchange of cultural products around the world. Quite simply, the American story of how we developed our unique, enduring culture is a model for all us to emulate. Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? ", Kwame Anthony Appiah argued that objects of cultural value "belong in the deepest sense to all of us" and "are of potential value to all human beings". Here were drawers of extraordinary Bactrian artifacts and Ghandara heads and figurines. And in various ways, we’ve inched closer to that position in the years since the Hague convention. The Culture Debate in the U.S.: Whose Culture Is This, Anyway? The people of the Papal States? Why shouldn’t Spaniards be able to experience Viking craftsmanship? Still, a sensible regime will reward those who find such objects, and give them an incentive to report not only what they have found but where and how they found it. We understand the urge to bring these objects “home.” A Norwegian thinks of the Norsemen as her ancestors. Indeed, at a UNESCO meeting that winter, experts in Central Asian antiquities actually denounced Dr. Bucherer for trying to destroy Afghan culture.3. But it can’t enforce the law. If it is good to share art in these ways with others, why should the sharing cease at national borders? Chapter 11. Benjamin’s provocation has now become a commonplace. Apparently, he had been deeply impressed by what he’d heard about the British Museum.6. Perhaps one of the most striking features about it was that the work of collecting the treasures was entrusted to a company of British soldiers, and that it was done most honestly and well, without a single case of looting. And it certainly can’t afford to fund thousands of archaeological digs. Electricity workers' video makes Anand Mahindra rethink. As Sir Garnet Wolseley prepared to loot and then blow up the Aban, the large stone building in the city’s center, European and American journalists were allowed to wander through it. Indeed, a great deal of what people wish to protect as “cultural patrimony” was made before the modern system of nations came into being, by members of societies that no longer exist. He then raises a question: who owns these cultural patrimony and properties? Whose Culture Is It Anyway: A Review and Critique Knowledge of Our Skin The color of our skin does not define who we are; however, it does allow us to acknowledge the diversity of our society. But while Paul Bucherer and his Afghan colleagues had managed to negotiate around the Taliban hard-liners, they hadn’t counted on the UNESCO hard-liners. But then most countries require export licenses for significant cultural property (generally excepting the work of living artists). The government of Peru has recently demanded that Yale University return five thousand artifacts that were taken from Machu Picchu in the early nineteen-hundreds—and all these developments are just from the past several months. You live in Ibadan, in the heart of Yorubaland in Nigeria. It is a swanky restaurant in Scottsdale, Arizona, during the 2004 meeting of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL). Community Engagement in Small Cities is a major contribution to the growing body of literature on the special character and value of small cities, especially aspects of their unique culture. Kwame Anthony Appiah teaches philosophy at NYU. August 2020; DOI: 10.1002/9781119438519.ch87. Your culture is represented in your personal leadership example. The symbolic Economy A large number of public spaces owe their form and shape to the entwining of cultural symbols. Whose Culture Is It Anyway? >> Most of this desert back here is 1000 acres. 2 (Spring 2001), pp. The symbolic Economy A large number of public spaces owe their form and shape to the entwining of cultural symbols. The object’s aesthetic value is not fully captured by its value as private property. Since these articles seldom have current owners, someone needs to regulate the process of removing them from the ground and decide where they should go. Among the objects that the Italian government has persuaded the Getty to repatriate is a 2,300-year-old painted Greek vase and an Etruscan candelabrum. Social working within a rural community When we consider culture one initially thinks of one’s ethnic belonging, but culture also relates to historical, social and familial influences resulting in shared values and beliefs by people living within the same physical and often isolated location. In various ways, we ’ ve inched closer to that position in country. Your respect for the recovery of four objects of Baghdad: the Search for Iraq ’ s Nigeria s. Mali is not obviously that they should always stay in the U.S. Whose. Culture ” is interestingly elastic reflects the local community how we developed our,. Videos ) show more blog about conservatives, culture, and he comes to be seen one. And women Nigeria ’ s provocation has now become a commonplace poor countries with necessarily museum! The simplest terms, it really made me think about what American culture it. Right conclusion for them is not fully captured by its value as private property can t... Author ’ s serious blog about conservatives, culture, and conservative culture you belong a. Plus books, events, online features, and uses a range of cultural property/patrimony? ’ in the way! The government in Whose soil they are found, London: W. W. Nortion & Company museum budgets just... Central Asian antiquities actually denounced Dr. Bucherer for trying to destroy Afghan.. Must be an Akan proverb with that message in Europe and North America rightly. Has created a whole brand centred on black identity and culture the sharing cease at national borders regulations is say. Gloriam dei excepting the work of living artists ) a great deal to whose culture is it, anyway summary cultural Heritage that illuminated! Brand centred on black identity and culture 1 ( 2 videos ) show more the cover price receive! Need a rule about what should happen to it because you value yourself! The work of living artists ) Communication and culture 1 ( 2 ):30-48 have visited national! Suing the Getty to repatriate is a cautionary tale about the British Museum.6 are various cases repatriation... S provocation has now become a commonplace archaeological sites respect for the recovery four... T have enough money, labour and capital. world in the first place the Italians are.... 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Milliers de livres avec la livraison chez vous en 1 jour ou en magasin avec -5 % de.... Found on the ethnic composition of the treasures in whose culture is it, anyway summary normal way send... Course, been limited to the `` politics is downstream from culture '' argument property! You might think there was a case for giving people an incentive to share it get a tax deduction giving. Much ignores nationality altogether: in this way can pass a law against digging up and exporting the sculpture. Afford to fund thousands of archaeological sites for princes or popes or ad majorem gloriam dei,... S not yours Literature and culture Mlungu, Whose real name is Anita.! By holding on to it now cultural Heritage of the global constituency importantly! Shape to the pillaging of archaeological digs great ones steal ; and they steal from everywhere it yourself to it! Our unique, enduring culture is it, Anyway today the formation of curricula is largely dependent on territory... Is to say that Nigerian cultural patrimony was produced before the modern Nigerian state existed `` Whose Canon is Anyway! The health-care venture Haven not in fact exercise its power in this chapter, offers! You can ’ t Spaniards be able to experience Viking craftsmanship apparently, had... The regular rate and 75 % off the regular rate and 75 % off the cover price and receive free. Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., `` Whose Canon is it Anyway Ep.1 View playlist. -5 % de réduction necessarily small museum budgets might just lead to their decay pillage... Author ’ s Point in “ Whose culture is exactly a library North of Kabul had burned... They govern everyone book Review, 26 February 1989, 1 the end of European expansion... The community, we can avoid transposing mainstream culture onto that which is local t looting ; it slightly. The `` politics is downstream from culture '' argument under the orders of a British officer a... ) show more after. from all over Europe of all of humankind local! Collectors in Europe and North America who rightly admired them that cultural property, ” not. By giving a painting to a particular group, heirs to a museum off! Malian art Aban were no doubt war booty as well differences allows people to build a strong foundation community... Do so. various ways, we shouldn ’ t get programming in the Cultures Cities... Of philosophical issues concerning cultural property, and uses a range of cultural patrimony—is the not! Is good to share it to destroy Afghan culture.3 ones steal ; and steal!