Such an explicit design allows straightforward and extensive use, replications, instrument improvements and associated data management through critical analysis of the results. Though Lederman's VNOS may be the most influential qualitative instrument, Aikenhead's VOSTS item pool has also inspired a considerable amount of studies and some of the mentioned instruments. We view understanding of the nature and structur… Over the last three decades, the whole project of epistemology has been subjected to criticism and change. 2. In simple words, it is concerned with how we gain knowledge or how we get to know something. ), NOS embodies knowledge "about" science (Osborne, Collins, Ratcliffe, Millar & Duschl, 2003). Operationally this includes, an individual’s beliefs about, how scientific knowledge is con- We have elevated this focus to the status of a strand for several reasons. Science education research needs standardized, valid and reliable instruments to evaluate NOS for diverse reasons: to provide trustworthy common grounds for research results and to foster NOS teaching, providing practical tools for teachers (Chen, 2006; Lederman, 2007). learners’ NOS views, the reader is referred to Lederman et al. However, closed lists of topics might run the risk of inducing sterile rote learning if pedagogical development is inappropriately applied (Abd-El-Khalick, 2012a; Deng, Chen, Tsai & Chai, 2011). These features make large-scale evaluations feasible at a state or national level, thus making the monitoring process more robust and representative (Kind & Barmby, 2011; Chen et al., 2013). The phrase "nature of science" typically refers to the epistemology of science, science as a way of knowing, or the values and beliefs inherent to the development of scientific knowledge (Lederman, 1992). Epistemology is central to philosophy of science, much more than say ontology or ethics. The importance of NOS for science education stems from being considered a core content of scientific literacy. Richard Feynman wrote, “It is whether or not the theory gives predictions that agree with experiment. The notion of authentic evaluation has been introduced into general education to aid in the evaluation of complex learning, such as performances or actions in real settings ("close to real”). Standardized instruments would provide researchers with common grounds, which could make it possible to compare research findings from different studies, groups and countries. stream All in all, qualitative research provides valuable and unquestionable contributions, so that the previous criticisms are not intended to devalue it in any case, but only to frame some of its shortcomings. Inference to the best explanation 1 The aim of science The aimof science isthegeneration of scientificknowledge. Our vision of K-8 science features this understanding as one of the four strands. involved in scientific practices, which depict science as a human activity aimed at gaining valid knowledge. In a way, the NGSS provides an enhanced, streamlined and renewed vision of the curricular NOS along two strands: the features associated with scientific and engineering practices (scientific research, methods, empirical evidence, openness to revision, scientific models, laws, mechanisms and theories), and some global suppositions of scientific knowledge, which are considered as curricular cross-cutting concepts (human enterprise, assumption of order and consistency for natural systems and limited to the natural and material world). In the latter, the two groups were generally not found to differ from each other, although the science students displayed less sophisticated beliefs (i.e., about the cultural dependency of scientific theories), and the science teacher education students scored lowest on all dimensions. Lederman and colleagues’ VNOS), only a rough percent of informed conceptions, developed through researcher-based criteria, are devised. Norman G. Lederman, Judith S. Lederman, Teaching and Learning of Nature of Scientific Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry: Building Capacity through Systematic Research-Based Professional Development, Journal of Science Teacher Education, 10.1080/1046560X.2019.1625572, (1-26), (2019). This new epistemology of scientific evidence (ESE) models scientific knowledge as achieved through a process of marshalling evidence in a scientific inquiry that results in a convergence of scientific theories and research results. x��[[o�F~7��0O��ǜo�������$讵؇��DYliR�8��=�I��h��\�s9߹̹qr}���E2���?_��u2[�s��zZ����~[�׿'Y��YY�����+������7�bl���̃�%��farͦ��{�?o//>9���M�]^��ո�����QD��sٛ����}xu��y���9iq��;wS��������6c7�1�����U�C=fG5vGp5jG=vG�y$�����S\��08��߰_����Ԩ�P2 �l{^�>&i�^��?G���j ��L�2-#��[������p��d���K-�R��;�\�H�@q���d ��I킎@�۩��XD. The above criticisms about validity could also apply to qualitative research, as the qualitative processing of participants' open productions is often insufficiently detailed by researchers, thus preventing semantic and validity issues from becoming ostensible. In particular, the development of statistical hypothesis testing (e.g., comparative group analyses, time series, profiles, etc.) The idea of epistemology … The research questions of this paper refer to its twofold aims: does the evaluation instrument and its associated methodology allow for a new, valid, reliable, fast, effective, inexpensive and standardized evaluation of NOS conceptions on epistemology of science? Other common criticisms refer to the scoring procedures, the underlying dimensionality of the models, the representativeness of the scores and the reliability statistics. This paper focuses on the evaluation of epistemological conceptions, crossing various concerns of NOS research, teaching and learning. All in all, the issues on the epistemology of science are widely agreed as a core component of NOS and are the centre of this paper. Science is not only a body of knowledge, but also a way of knowing. Besides the traditional contents "of" science (facts, laws, theories, processes, inquiry, etc. NOS issues have been adopted as curriculum content in the reforms of science education around the world, and consequently, NOS topics should also be a part of science teacher education (Eurydice, 2011; Next Generation Science Standard [NGSS], 2013). Nature of Science The concept of NOS is related to the epistemology of science, and considers the values and beliefs inherent to the development of scientific knowledge (Lederman, 1992). Recent evaluation instrumentsScience education research needs standardized, valid and reliable instruments to evaluate NOS for diverse reasons: to provide trustworthy common grounds for research results and to foster NOS teaching, providing practical tools for teachers (Chen, 2006; Lederman, 2007). in order to better unveil the respondent's real conceptions (Aikenhead & Ryan, 1992; Chen, 2006; Lederman et al., 2002). Scientific inquiry is only one epistemological approach to knowledge. Epistemology was defined as “the origin, nature, limits, methods, and justification of human knowledge” (Hofer 2002, p. 4). Thus, accurate individual profiles are relatively incomparable, beyond broad stereotyped results on the poverty of students' and teachers' epistemological and NOS conceptions.  When using the same qualitative instrument (e.g. NOS refers to the values, suppositions, scientific practices, community, society, and technology, etc. The author addresses several ways of knowing in science and contrasts them with other approaches to knowledge in order to better understand how scientists in general, and physicists in particular, come to know things. Most diagnostic studies of conceptions have been performed using small, or convenience, samples of science participants. 3 0 obj %���� Recent years have seen a major growth in research on the evaluation of student and teachers' conceptions about NOS and epistemology. A simple approach characterizes NOS as a human way of gaining valid knowledge that is practised by a special community of professionals called scientists, who work under certain values and epistemological assumptions. What constitutes a sophisticated understanding of NOS, or epistemology of science? <>>> Instead, we advocate trying to bridge the gap between the two methods because they can also complement each other in providing valuable information about the complex aspects of NOS conceptions through their different approaches to seeking evidence. We begin by drawing upon the available literature to identify four characteristics of teacher talk likely to support student learning about the epistemology of science: making appropriate statements about the epistemology of science in the classroom, linking the epistemology of science with specific science concepts, stating and justifying learning aims, and working with students’ ideas. Scientific developments in the 20 th Ideology, Epistemology, Pedagogy and the National Curriculum for Science: the influence on primary science ... of science and design and technology, whilst Jennings (1992) makes a ... (Lederman & Zeidler, 1987). dents’ views of the NOS. One important underpinning for learning science is students understanding of the nature and structure of scientific knowledge and the process by which it is developed. endobj This reflection intends to redress an apparent imbalance in research between qualitative and quantitative methods because the greater criticisms of the latter may be hindering them (Guerra-Ramos, 2012). Liu's review (Liu, 2012) adds three different instruments: Views about Sciences Survey (VASS) (Halloun & Hestenes, 1998), Thinking about Science Survey Instrument (TSSI) (Cobern & Loving, 2002) and Views on Science and Education (VOSE) (Chen, 2006). endobj E.g., Émile Meyerson opened his Identity and Reality, written in 1908, with the remark that the word 'is becoming current' as equivalent to 'the philosophy of the sciences.'. NOS typically refers to the epistemology of science, science as a way of knowing, or the values and beliefs inherent to scientific knowledge and its development (Lederman, 1992). endobj Thus, research studies can be compared on the same scoring baseline; scaling up to larger samples is faster, easier, and cheaper; and, in practice, its use by teachers for curricular development or classroom evaluation is straightforward. The analyses use seven multiple-rating items on the epistemology of science drawn from the item pool Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS). The construct ''nature of science (NOS)" refers to the epistemology of science, science as a way of knowing, and/or the values and assumptions inherent to the development of scientific knowledge (Lederman, 1992). The immaculate perception hypothesis (the implicit assumption that researcher and respondents perceive and understand the items in the same way) may severely affect the validity of investigator-designed instruments (Aikenhead, Fleming & Ryan, 1987; Lederman & O'Malley, 1990; Lederman, 2007). In this framework, and in light of some criticisms of the VNOS questionnaire (Lederman et al., 2002), Allchin (2011) recently argued for applying the criteria of authentic evaluation to NOS conceptions, highlighting the complexities of teaching and evaluating NOS. are more straightforward to perform with this instrument than with other instruments and methodological approaches. The approach is extensive, flexible, functional, meaningful and standardized, and it easily allows adaptable applications, statistical hypothesis testing between groups, across treatments, or over time. The review of over one hundred research studies on students' NOS conceptions by Liu (2012) estimates the proportion of qualitative (two-thirds) to quantitative methods (one-third) used in research. Ángel VÁZQUEZ-ALONSO, María-Antonia MANASSERO-MAS, Antonio GARCÍA-CARMONA and Marisa MONTESANO DE TALAVERA (Coll, 2012; Lederman, 2007). Epistemology is a field of science that deals with the acquisition of knowledge. On the other hand, this paper illustrates these properties through a real assessment of some epistemology issues in a large, nationwide sample of Panamanian students and teachers, whose presence is scarce in science education research.  Hypothesis testing and correlation analyses of the epistemological conceptions are also taken into consideration. Indeed, it is usually recommended to complement test scores with qualitative methods (interviews, observation, etc.) On the other hand, reliance on quantitative scales and questionnaires has produced criticisms pointing to methodological shortcomings and poor validity or reliability. Lederman (2007) displays a huge list of instruments for the period 1954-1992, although for recent years, he just refers to the five-form VNOS, the 114-item Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) (Aikenhead & Ryan, 1992) and the Critical Incidents Scale (Nott & Wellington, 1995). Furthermore, the results are broadly coherent across methods, countries and age groups, confirming the importance of the problem (Lederman, 2007; García-Carmona, Vázquez & Manassero, 2012). (1998). 1 0 obj Today, science education literature usually considers the epistemology of science under the NOS umbrella or, even more precisely, the nature of scientific knowledge (Lederman, 2007).  NOS refers to the values, suppositions, scientific practices, community, society, and technology, etc. The phrase typically has been used to refer to the epistemology of science, science as a way of knowing, or the values and beliefs inherent to the development of scientific knowledge. The qualitative approach has its own unquestionable merits to penetrate the complex web of individuals’ ideas; although it also suffers from semantic problems, the categories of analysis are often idiosyncratic, not very explicitly defined, and hardly ever equivalent among studies (Deng et al., 2011). The phrase “nature of science” (NOS) may refer to the epistemology of science or the principles and beliefs inherent to the development of scientific knowledge (Lederman, 1992). Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, Volume 17, Issue 1, Article 4 (Jun., 2016) These characterizations nevertheless remain general, and philosophers, The aim of this paper is twofold. and quantitative (ordinal Likert-type scales, multiple-choice and multiple-rating questionnaires, grids, etc.). When read from left to right, elements take on a more multidimensional nature (eg., epistemology: objectivism to subjectivism). %PDF-1.5 China University of Political Science and Law. Albert Einstein stated, “Science without epistemology is—insofar as it is thinkable at all—primitive and muddled.” Validation is central to scientific knowledge. can be more readily examined (Deng et al., 2011). Overall, 81% of the data acquisition methods are qualitative, indicating the prevalence of the qualitative over the quantitative approach in current NOS research. Partial accounts of quantitative evaluation instruments in the literature have contributed to the invisibility of some available instruments. Educational evaluation has grown into a vast field of research. <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 10 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 595.2 841.8] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Diagnosing conceptions about the epistemology of science: Most of the recent science education research on these interdisciplinary issues (including epistemology issues) has been labelled "nature of science" (NOS), which embraces a variety of areas related to the nature of scientific knowledge (epistemology of science, science community, the relationships between science, technology and society, socio-scientific issues), and many other related topics concerning their effective teaching and learning, methods, NOS teaching materials, evaluation of students' and teachers' conceptions, theoretical matters, teacher training, etc. Beyond these general characterizations, no consensus presently exists among philosophers of science, historians of The standardized instrument devised in this paper, based on the VOSTS pool, is oriented towards coping with some current challenges of NOS research and teaching (assessment), which in turn provide reasons to choose quantitative instruments to assess NOS conceptions. A standardized instrument usually involves procedures that are inexpensive, rapid and easy to apply. 2 0 obj <> Recently however, some studies have started to use larger samples tied to applications of VOSTS-related instruments (e.g. NOS can be generally defined as the epistemology of science or the values and beliefs inherent in the development of scientific knowledge (Lederman, 1992). epistemology of science and its relation to learning. Science issuesinpropo-sitional outputs that we seek to support with sufficient evidence that they are worthy of belief. French philosophers then gave the term épistémologie a narrower meaning as philosophy of science. Standardized instruments would facilitate teachers’ evaluation tasks in the classroom, and consequently, are likely to stimulate teachers to incorporate NOS teaching into curricula, as their reluctance to teach NOS explicitly is partially due to the lack of evaluation instruments (Lederman, 2007). Overlap and distinction between NOS, epistemology, and authentic science inquiry Nature of science. beliefs was addressed that, NOS refers to the epistemology of science (Lederman, 1992). Science was knowledge that was deduced from self-evident principles, and theology was knowledge that received its principles from God, the source of all principles. Particularly, the item pool used here is large enough for different instruments to be tailored to different applications and objectives by choosing the appropriate items from the pool. and correlation analyses between variables (e.g., teaching factors, factor analysis, etc.) 4 0 obj (2006) studied non-science students, and Liu and Tsai (2008) compared arts and science graduate students (including an initial teacher education group). Contributions of a quantitative assessment methodology. This process has been marked, successively, by the transfer of epistemic sovereignty to the “social” domain, by the rediscovery of ontology and by attention to constitutive normativity and the political implications of knowledge. Lederman (2007) displays a huge list of instruments for the period 1954-1992, although for recent years, he just refers to the five-form VNOS, the 114-item Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) (Aikenhead & Ryan, 1992) and the Critical Incidents Scale (Nott & Wellington, 1995). Evaluation of epistemology conceptions within the Nature of Science framework stated that “NOS refers to the epistemology and sociology of science, science as a way of knowing, or the values and beliefs inherent to scientific knowledge and its development” (p. 498). The numerous methods and instruments basically fall into two broad categories: qualitative (case studies, participant observation, interviews, open questionnaires, content analysis of lesson plans and classroom documents, concept maps, discourse analysis, etc.) This complementary approach to the qualitative/quantitative evaluation instrumentation has also been initiated from the qualitative facet through the work of Brunner, Summers, Myers and Abd-El-Khalick (2016), who try to quantify the responses of the most widely used qualitative evaluation tool (VNOS). It is specifically concerned with the nature, sources and limitations of knowledge. NOS typically refers to the epistemology of science, science as a way of knowing, or the values and beliefs inherent to scientific knowledge and its development (Lederman, 1992). One of these methodologies is Problem Based Learning (PBL) (Bache & Hayton, 2012). Epistemology - Epistemology - Scientific theology to secular science: For most of the Middle Ages there was no distinction between theology and science (scientia). The National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) and Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993) clearly Neither students nor teachers understand the role that theories, laws, hypotheses, models, creativity, technology, tentativeness and scientific methods play in science. They hold mythical conceptions about science, which reject the theory-laden, tentativeness and differences between scientific theories, laws, and hypotheses, and the status of scientific method(s), inference, observation, and empirical evidence (e.g., Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000; Celik & Bayrakçeken, 2006; García-Carmona, Vázquez & Manassero, 2011; Lederman, 2007). Some additional questionnaires are listed in the table of Appendix A. Science teachers' understanding of epistemology unfortunately reflects similar naïve patterns to those observed in students. On the one hand, it presents a new methodological approach to evaluate epistemological conceptions which advances NOS research allowing specific comparisons and hypothesis testing. Dogan & Abd-El-Khalick, 2008). The aim of NOS teaching in pre-college science education is not to train students to become philosophers of science or to address particular philosophical standpoints. Forced-choice instruments, in particular, limit the space of responses available to respondents (Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick, Bell & Schwartz, 2002). Open-ended instruments, on the contrary, require idiosyncratic, expensive, tedious and slow processes that are managed by scholars. Lederman et al. science can be communicated to K-12 students (Lederman & Mess, 1997). It is widely used to refer to the nature and function of scientific knowledge (Abd-El-Khalick, Bell, & Lederman, 1998; Lederman, 1992). Philosophy of science studies both the history and methods used to obtain scientific knowledge. ). Today, science education literature usually considers the epistemology of science under the NOS umbrella or, even more precisely, the nature of scientific knowledge (Lederman, 2007). <> Further, Holbrook et al. Partial accounts of quantitative evaluation instruments in the literature have contributed to the invisibility of some available instruments. Social science research guide consisting of ontology, epistemology, and philosophical perspectives. Furthermore, the results are broadly coherent across methods, countries and age groups, confirming the importance of the problem (Lederman, 2007; García-Carmona, Vázquez & Manassero, 2012). NOS Typically, NOS refers to the epistemology and sociology of science, science as a way of knowing, or the values and beliefs inherent to scientific knowledge and its development (Lederman, 1992). Second, what are the Panamanian student and teachers’ conceptions on the epistemology of science? to classify individuals (this is also a problem in qualitative research). Epistemology Science Education’s Need for a Theory of Epistemological Development WILLIAM SANDOVAL Graduate School of Education & Information Studies, University of California, ... Lederman considers “the conflation of NOS and scientific inquiry” (Lederman, 2007, p. 835) to be damaging to the study of NOS. Of K-8 science features this understanding as one of the term épistémologie a narrower meaning as of. Science teachers ' conceptions about NOS and epistemology percent of informed conceptions, developed through researcher-based criteria are. ( PBL ) ( Bache & Hayton, 2012 ) ' conceptions about and... 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More than say ontology or ethics constitutes a sophisticated understanding of the NOS? to methodological shortcomings poor... And limitations of knowledge shortcomings and poor validity or reliability first concern clearly to! To methodological shortcomings and poor validity or reliability small, or epistemology of science participants contrary require! Isthegeneration of scientificknowledge and quantitative ( ordinal Likert-type scales, multiple-choice and questionnaires!, are devised the development of statistical hypothesis testing ( e.g., teaching, teacher attitudes, motivation,.... Procedures that are inexpensive, rapid and easy to apply analyses, time series, profiles, etc... And teachers’ conceptions on the evaluation of epistemological conceptions, crossing various concerns of NOS research, and... Philosophical perspectives '' science ( facts, laws, theories, processes inquiry... Variables ( e.g., teaching, teacher attitudes, motivation, etc. ) samples...
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