Using the Platonic dialogues as his guide, Irwin nicely sketches Socratic rationalism and eudaimonism, and briefly presents some arguments for the claims that virtue is a sort of knowledge and that virtue is all one needs to be happy. Irwin is aware that his approach is not the only one, but argues convincingly that it is an important one that can promote our understanding both of ethics and of its history. 9th ed. The known history of pure ethics or ethics (moral) theories begin with ancient Greek philosophers (Sophists, Socrates, Socratic schools, Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, Stoics) and after recovered by early English positivists has been the main topic of discussions in the Medieval times in Europe. These writings document the history of these peoples within a moral context. The highest form of life is, however, purely intellectual activity. Rousseau is often identified … The gods that appear in such epics are not defenders of moral values but are capricious forces of nature, and are to be feared and propitiated. Irwin even detects some Aristotelian elements in the Stoic views on friendship, although the Aristotelian notion of friendship is based on the view that there are goods beside virtue (a claim that the Stoics denied). This document provides background on the history and development of ethics codes, focused on three fields connected to the ethical issues in big data: computing ethics, biomedical ethics and journalism ethics. The Greeks found this paradoxical, but Socrates both argued and lived this philosophy consistently. But one could hardly claim that the Stoics saw themselves as trying to take Aristotle's ethics to their rational conclusion. The Stoics thought the greatest good not pleasure but reason and everything in accord with reason, even if painful. After a discussion of the canon of virtues (primarily justice, which Irwin bases on an account of -- more or less Aristotelian -- friendship) and an argument for their reciprocity, Irwin concludes his discussion of Aquinas by returning to the issue of moral responsibility (a central notion in the whole of Irwin's book). Yet they do have moral views that, on the one hand, are responsive to philosophical arguments (from both pagans and Christians), and, on the other, bear an essential connection to theological views. In a concise and enlightening manner, Irwin sets out the main issues in ancient ethics and presents the Socratic position as it emerges from Socrates' dialectical methodology. He notes that they have elements in common with Aristotelianism, the most important of which is the view that virtue is the perfection of rational agency. Irwin boldly presents Aquinas as not only an interpreter of Aristotle, but also as a defender (on philosophical grounds) of essentially Aristotelian moral views and a believer in the essential compatibility between pagan and Christian moral views. Literature Review: In this part of the assessment, you will analyze foundational research presented in the course for how the field of social psychology. One of the problems one encounters when conducting psychological research is considering the extent to which the research depends upon being unethical. For him, the child was a tabula rasa or blank slate on which experience writes. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. After defining key terms in ethics in psychology I give a historical overview of the Codes of Ethics and their subsequent editions that have been adopted by the American Psychological Association and the Canadian Psychological Association respectively. After briefly describing the need for ethics in the development of professional regulation and analyzing the historical emergence of codes of ethics, the goal of this paper is to scrutinize the process by which the American Psychological Association developed its own Code of Ethics … Special issue of APA's Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, Vol. The purpose of the four position papers and the three commentaries on them is to discuss some relatively undeveloped historical, philosophical, and social–contextual issues that the authors discern in the APA and Canadian Psychological Association codes of ethics. Of course, there are immense differences in the way in which the broad principles so far discussed are applied. [20], In the late 20th century, there was a so-called 'aretaic turn' and renewed interest in virtue ethics. Psychology is a relatively new science which gained popularity in the early 20th century with Wilhelm Wundt. In this sense, natural law is part of eternal law. Ethical guidelines for human subject research arose out of abuse of power, unethical studies, and significant harm caused to individuals by participation, often involuntary and without consent, in research. The volume includes a not overly extensive bibliography, which contains the most important relevant historical texts and select scholarly works, and a useful index. The British Psychological Society (BPS) and American Psychological Association (APA) have both issued a code of ethics in psychology that provides guidelines for the conduct of research. The profession offered successful war-related services such as creation of group tests to help the Avoiding a legalistic account of Aquinas' thought and connecting reason, law, and human nature through an account of deliberation, Irwin argues that the basis of natural law (as Aquinas conceives it) is not just some anthropological or psychological feature of human beings (such as the desire for sociability, or the pursuit of happiness, understood as pleasant satisfaction). Jan 1, 1879. And, as becomes increasingly evident in the course of the book, Irwin believes in general that moral psychology and the account of agency and responsibility play a central role in formulating ancient and medieval accounts of the good. Kant argues that questions about happiness should not be a focus in ethical thought, because ethics should be universal while happiness may involve very different modes of life for different individuals. Similarly, Irwin suggests that Augustine's conception of happiness and its relationship to virtue and morality does not require the rejection of the ancient views. Irwin tries to show that, despite initial appearances, Augustine's views on human rationality and happiness, when properly understood, do not really differ from the ancients'. The paper outlines ways of characterizing such work. Ethical Principles, Values, and Codes for Psychologists: An Historical Journey Carole Sinclair; An International Perspective on Ethics Codes for Psychology: A Focus on Test Development and Use Thomas Oakland, Mark M. Leach, Dave Bartram, Geoff Lindsay, Ann-Charlotte Smedler, and Houcan Zhang Still, the first guidebook for ethical research and practice was developed by the American Psychological Association in 1953, almost 70 years after the inception of psychology. The remainder of the book sketches a transition from ancient rationalism, intellectualism, and eudaimonism, to the modern conceptions of ethics, as expressed by Hobbes and Hume. Feminists form Division 35 of the American Psychological Association in 1973, now the Society for the Psychology of Women. R. Martensen, The history of bioethics: an essay review. Ethics of Psychology . So far, numerous breakthroughs have been achieved through the development of the psychological assessment. Irwin achieves this by restricting his critical comments to their historical context, and showing that the original texts are rich enough to express (and perhaps reply to) our contemporary critical philosophical demands. [18], Reflections on the Holocaust, such as those of Hannah Arendt, led to a deepening appreciation of the reality of extreme evil. History of ethics. 3), thus embracing in a single undertaking the main ethical doctrines that Western philosophers produced over many centuries. One of the few distinctly Christian ideas appears in Aquinas' notion of otherworldly happiness and the restrictions this notion places on eudaimonism. For example, Milgram (1963), Zimbardo (1973). According to this theory, the will can deny both the partly irrational passions and some of reason's decrees, although in an important sense it stems from reason and is not independent from it. Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior". However, Plato's ethical ideal, as expressed in the Republic, still has much in common with the Homeric conception of the leader of a tribe or city: the successful running of the city and the internal harmony of the citizen who runs it is the main ethical aim, and there is little mention in Plato of any strictly moral obligations the ruler may be under. The Evolution of Developmental Psychology: History, Research, and Ethics: Lifespan Development These elements account for moral naturalism's permanence even within the Catholic Church (which defended Scholasticism against the Reformers and had no hesitation about siding with the ancient pagans). According to Irwin, Epicureanism fails to reply to the Aristotelian standpoint on two counts: it fails to show pleasure to be the specifically human good, as Aristotle would require; and it also does not support virtue as a goal in itself. This is a flaw that Irwin admits but considers a necessary evil. To decide what duty requires, Kant proposes the principle of universalizability: correct moral rules are those everyone could adopt.[15]. The chapter on Plato concludes with a discussion of the origin of our concern for others (which may appear to conflict with eudaimonism, at least prima facie) through an account of other-concern as the virtuous person's attempt to pass on his valuable traits to others (an account that takes us, as Irwin maintains, pretty close to Aristotelian friendship). Thus, Irwin maintains that Augustine "believes that pagan philosophy has identified genuine elements of the human good" (433), while Christianity amplified the scope of the goods to include those of the city of God. The \"ethics in business\" sense of business ethics In this broad sense ethics in business is simply the application of everyday moral or ethical norms to business. and elaborate a complete set of proper behaviors for individuals and groups. Relying heavily on the ethics acculturation model and the use of an ethics autobiography, Anderson and Handelsman provide a series of exercises and discussions designed to socialize young professionals into the profession. Irwin holds that Aquinas has in mind a supervisory function of moral virtue (moral virtue, based on charity, directs intellectual virtue) which stems out of his account of the will and the Christian notion of charity. The role of Locke and later learning theorists was to emphasize the role of the environment in development. The ethics of development—as an existing and a prospective activity— examines the benefits, costs, risks, formulations, participation, and options. We have a moral responsibility to protect research participants from harm. In Psychology some of the most contested issues are ethical issues. In the first volume of his Development of Ethics, Terence Irwin undertakes the ambitious task of offering a historical and critical study of moral philosophy from Socrates to the Reformation. Introducing a strong notion of the will does not have to result in voluntarism (the view that the will acts independent of reason's judgment). Following Plato, Aristotle gives a significant role in moral life to the virtues, fixed habits of behavior that lead to good outcomes; the main virtues are courage, justice, prudence and temperance. [10], A theme of Ancient Greek ethics then is the role of the virtuous life in achieving eudaimonia, or the good life; and Aristotle, Epicurus and the Stoics all argued that virtue was necessary for happiness, albeit in different ways and with different conceptions of those terms.[11]. However important the issue under investigation psychologists need to remember that they have a duty to respect … So far, Irwin has not presented any uniquely Christian features of Aquinas' thought, but rather seems to have based any difference from Aristotelian ethics on philosophical grounds. The Nuremberg Code, the first international code of ethics for research on human subjects, is adopted. ISSN: 1538 - 1617 The large number of Irwin’s bold, incisive, and thought-provoking claims makes it difficult to single out any particular view and discuss its philosophical merits or deficiencies. Ethical guidelines are vital in any psychological research. In his final chapter on Aristotle, Irwin discusses the question of the normative content of virtues. RE: Historical Perspective of Ethics in Psychology Do You need help with your school? Revenge and vendetta are appropriate activities for heroes. I Can write your papers, do your presentations, labs, and final exams too. Bersoff, D., ed. 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