The play was entered in the Register of the Stationers Company, the method at that time of obtaining copyright for a new play, by James Roberts on 22 July 1598 under the title The Merchant of Venice, otherwise called The Jew of Venice. I don't think they have slept together but that's for the audience to decide."[20]. But what should be a happy ending is violated and broken by Antonio and Shylock. "The Merchant of Venice – World premiere", Bregenzer Festspiele. In 1741, Charles Macklin returned to the original text in a very successful production at Drury Lane, paving the way for Edmund Kean seventy years later (see below). A court of justice. [9], Shakespeare's play may be seen as a continuation of this tradition. Why, I am sure, if he forfeit, thou wilt not take his flesh. If you tickle us, do we not laugh? The forfeit of a merchant's deadly bond after standing surety for a friend's loan was a common tale in England in the late 16th century. At Venice, Antonio's ships are reported lost at sea, so the merchant cannot repay the bond. Avenue to PORTIA’S house. [73][74][75], This article is about Shakespeare's play. speech to his brother Władysław in the Warsaw Ghetto during the Nazi occupation in World War II. Why, revenge. A summary of Part X (Section3) in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice. Jessica is the daughter of Shylock, a Jewish moneylender, in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice (c. 1598).In the play, she elopes with Lorenzo, a penniless Christian, and a chest of her father's money, eventually ending up in Portia and Bassanio's household. Jewish critic Harold Bloom suggests that, although the play gives merit to both cases, the portraits are not even-handed: "Shylock's shrewd indictment of Christian hypocrisy delights us, but ... Shakespeare's intimations do not alleviate the savagery of his portrait of the Jew..."[18], Antonio's unexplained depression – "In sooth I know not why I am so sad" – and utter devotion to Bassanio has led some critics to theorise that he is suffering from unrequited love for Bassanio and is depressed because Bassanio is coming to an age where he will marry a woman. In this film, Henryk Szpilman reads Shylock's "Hath Not a Jew eyes?" Shylock. lorenzo merchant of venice “Class 12 English” “The Merchant of Venice” Introduction. Act IV. Caldecott, Henry Stratford (1895). Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. "[65], One of the four short stories comprising Alan Isler's The Bacon Fancier (1999) is also told from Shylock's point of view. He has a great appreciation of nighttime and a deep love of music, but is not quick-witted enough to keep up with Lancelot’s wordplay. [61], Steven Spielberg's Schindler's List (1993) depicts SS Lieutenant Amon Göth quoting Shylock's "Hath Not a Jew eyes?" Lorenzo in The Merchant of Venice. He flees with her to Genoa, before moving on to Belmont at Salerio’s insistence, to help support Bassanio when the latter finds out about Antonio’s losses. At Belmont, Portia and Nerissa taunt and pretend to accuse their husbands before revealing they were really the lawyer and his clerk in disguise (V). Michael Radford, director of the 2004 film version starring Al Pacino, explained that, although the film contains a scene where Antonio and Bassanio actually kiss, the friendship between the two is platonic, in line with the prevailing view of male friendship at the time. Antonio says he is content that the state waive its claim to half Shylock's wealth if he can have his one-half share "in use" until Shylock's death, when the principal would be given to Lorenzo and Jessica. I would lose all, ay, sacrifice them all Portia asks him to take charge of Belmont while she is gone on her retreat during Bassanio’s absence. A) leaving Shylock B) catching the casket of ducats and jewels she throws out the window C) marriage D) becoming a Christian 15. I am a Jew. Lecture by James Shapiro: "Shakespeare and the Jews". Answered by jill d #170087 on 2/12/2018 9:40 PM The letter details how Lorenzo can get Jessica away from her father's house, what she will be wearing, and what treasures she will be bringing with her. In a 1902 interview with Theater magazine, Adler pointed out that Shylock is a wealthy man, "rich enough to forgo the interest on three thousand ducats" and that Antonio is "far from the chivalrous gentleman he is made to appear. [11], Regardless of what Shakespeare's authorial intent may have been, the play has been made use of by antisemites throughout the play's history. Rowe expressed doubts about this interpretation as early as 1709; Doggett's success in the role meant that later productions would feature the troupe clown as Shylock. In this story, Antonio was a converted Jew. If you prick us, do we not bleed? LORENZO I will anon: first, let us go to dinner. Bassanio does not want Antonio to accept such a risky condition; Antonio is surprised by what he sees as the moneylender's generosity (no "usance" – interest – is asked for), and he signs the contract. (IV, i), In his essay "Brothers and Others", published in The Dyer's Hand, W. H. Auden describes Antonio as "a man whose emotional life, though his conduct may be chaste, is concentrated upon a member of his own sex." [53], Ralph Vaughan Williams' choral work Serenade to Music (1938) draws its text from the discussion about music and the music of the spheres in Act V, scene 1. Another interpretation of Shylock and a vision of how "must he be acted" appears at the conclusion of the autobiography of Alexander Granach, a noted Jewish stage and film actor in Weimar Germany (and later in Hollywood and on Broadway).[30]. LORENZO In … [58] In this retelling, Shylock and Antonio are friends and share a disdain for the crass anti-Semitism of the Christian community's laws. To bait fish withal; if it will feed nothing else, it will feed my revenge. Venice produces merchants such as Antonio, whereas Belmont produces Lorenzo, a lazy beggar. A court of justice. Merchant of Venice What is written on the letter to Lorenzo from Jessica? Thus, if Shylock were to shed any drop of Antonio's blood, his "lands and goods" would be forfeited under Venetian laws. He's not saying they're gay or they're straight, he's leaving it up to his actors. English society in the Elizabethan and Jacobean era has been described as "judeophobic". What's that good for? speech on humanity. English Maths Physics Chemistry Biology. A garden. ... Lorenzo, Jessica and Salerio arrive from Venice with a letter for Bassanio from Antonio, in which he explains that he is ruined and Shylock is determined to exact his revenge by demanding his pound of flesh according to the bond. The Nazis used the usurious Shylock for their propaganda. [8] In Venice and in some other places, Jews were required to wear a red hat at all times in public to make sure that they were easily identified, and had to live in a ghetto. That's the key for me in the relationship. (IV, i). The great thing about Shakespeare and why he's so difficult to pin down is his ambiguity. And featuring Maggie Smith as Portia. What does Jessica tell Lorenzo is “worth the pains”? If you poison us, do we not die? Antonio's feelings for Bassanio are likened to a couplet from Shakespeare's Sonnets: "But since she pricked thee out for women's pleasure,/ Mine be thy love, and my love's use their treasure." ANTONIO ... LORENZO The reason is, your spirits are attentive: For do but note a wild and wanton herd, Or race of youthful and unhandled colts, Portia is a fine example of a romantic heroine in Shakespeare’s mature comedies: she is witty, rich, exacting in what… The climax of the play is set in the court of the Duke of Venice. Shortly after Kristallnacht in 1938, The Merchant of Venice was broadcast for propagandistic ends over the German airwaves. Previous Next . 2.3. The Merchant of Venice Shakespeare homepage | Merchant of Venice | Entire play ACT I SCENE I. Venice. He is delighted to discover himself to be Shylock’s heir. [60], The Star Trek franchise sometimes quote and paraphrase Shakespeare, including The Merchant of Venice. Launcelot comes to take his leave from Shylock, but finds his master’s daughter, Jessica, sitting alone in the house. She tells him that he must cut precisely one pound of flesh, no more, no less; she advises him that "if the scale do turn, But in the estimation of a hair, Thou diest and all thy goods are confiscate.". Critics today still continue to argue over the play's stance on the Jews and Judaism. Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 4 Summary. Her father left a will stipulating that each of her suitors must choose correctly from one of three caskets, made of gold, silver and lead respectively. Exeunt. Shylock's fatal flaw is to depend on the law, but "would he not walk out of that courtroom head erect, the very apotheosis of defiant hatred and scorn? Scene 5. The Merchant of Venice is a 16th-century play written by William Shakespeare in which a merchant in Venice named Antonio defaults on a large loan provided by a Jewish moneylender, Shylock. He has insulted the Jew and spat on him, yet he comes with hypocritical politeness to borrow money of him." [56][57], Arnold Wesker's play The Merchant (1976) is a reimagining of Shakespeare's story. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. And, when the tale is told, bid her be judge Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 4 Summary, Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers. They cite as evidence that Shylock's "trial" at the end of the play is a mockery of justice, with Portia acting as a judge when she has no right to do so. . In such a night JESSICA: Did young Lorenzo swear he loved her well, Stealing her soul with many vows of faith, And ne'er a true one. LORENZO 41 Fair thoughts and happy hours attend on you! Fare ye well: We leave you now with better company. The doctor is Portia in disguise, and the law clerk who accompanies her is Nerissa, also disguised as a man. To some critics, Shylock's celebrated "Hath not a Jew eyes?" His play Shylock, first performed at the Théâtre de l'Odéon in December 1889, had incidental music by the French composer Gabriel Fauré, later incorporated into an orchestral suite of the same name. One example is the Shakespeare-aficionado Chang in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (1991), a Klingon, who quotes Shylock. This introduces the sub-plot of Lorenzo- Jessica love story. Venice. A date of 1596–97 is considered consistent with the play's style. Bassanio warns his companion to exercise self-control, and the two leave for Belmont. The villainy you teach me, I will execute, and it shall go hard but I will better the instruction. Edmond Haraucourt, French playwright and poet, was commissioned in the 1880s by the actor and theatrical director Paul Porel to make a French-verse adaptation of The Merchant of Venice. 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