The concern of privacy has been ramped up tremendously over the last 10 or 15 years, and the process of getting permission to analyze data can be difficult, but a trend in social science data is to include more and more information that’s sensitive. Researchers are learning on the job in an ad hoc fashion. Unfortunately, that is not enough. Read on to find out what the problems are with big data implementation. From 1979 to 1986 a particle detector experiment called JADE (Japan, Deutschland, England) was performed at the PETRA e+e collider in Hamburg, Germany; the experiment resulted in several important discoveries for particle physics. Since data is dynamic, ever-changing and has many touch points, the traditional project management approach isn’t the right fit for data governance. Data management and data analysis - 524 rev. The ultimate goal for this project is to maintain all data sets indefinitely and potentially to make these data available for download via a website. If data are not to be disseminated, these aids are often unnecessary to individuals or small groups of researchers. Data management is the upkeep of records, information, and data. Although digital data curation in its most basic form is merely saving the bits and bytes, the underlying ethical and philosophical issues related to sharing data amplify the technological challenge at hand. Well, this tends to manifest itself in the below-mentioned ways. Participants frequently reported exceeding their data quotas within university networks, and they sought tools that allow them to collaborate across institutions and manage data in a networked environment. •    Video: mp4, mov A “think globally, act locally” approach is what organizations need to follow. •    If you were archiving your research for future scholars, what would be the most important things to be preserved? Additional work is needed to establish best practices in this area, particularly for qualitative data sets. This work has often been the domain of IT or technical professionals, yet data has the potential to serve as a … Overpeck, Jonathan T., Gerald A. Meehl, Sandrine Bony, and David R. Easterling. •    Unsure of best practices regarding preservation in terms of file formats Wondering what it means? Not only are necessary metadata and other materials much more easily captured while research is in progress, but also there is a real opportunity to streamline research workflows and to provide much needed support. A local data specialist who operates within the university to collaborate with researchers and who participates in a network that extends beyond the university would facilitate long-term collaboration with researchers as they move through the various stages of their career. As one researcher described: The participant went on to describe a colleague’s more generously funded project that includes database programmers who manage large data sets of computed tomography (CT) scans. •    What are the products/outcomes of your work? This new big data world also brings some massive problems. •    Inadequate tools to manage versioning, etc. Some study participants wondered who might be interested in their data while also expressing a desire to associate their data with publications or to have it available for use in the classroom (e.g., Participant #2-12-111011, Assistant Professor, Environmental Science). Data Creation/Analysis: Researchers need no longer stretch a limited supplies budget to cover the high cost of film and, without this restriction, may be less judicious with their documentation. 2011), design better cities (Gur et al. •    Difficulty maintaining and tracking support materials •    Antiterror laws in Turkey, prosecution of the Kurdish minority Although a data governance program limited to a particular business unit may help that unit, problems crop up since data sharing happens across varied business groups where each group sets the definition of a specific data element accordingly, and this can lead to poor decisions. We would like to thank the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation for its generous funding, which enabled us to carry out this study. The best-case scenario encountered during this study was a project at Penn State University that emphasizes ontology development at the beginning of the research process. Data for this project are initially collected in an imaging lab and then processed locally in the researcher’s anthropology lab. Nature Biotechnology 23(10): 1243–1247. •    How did you become involved in this project? •    Systems and infrastructure overwhelmed by scale of data Lawrence, Bryan, Catherine Jones, and Brian Matthews. Recently Forbes said that organizations are keen to spend on big data app development to manage the huge volume of information created where 40% of these apps are customer-facing. This kind of support is beyond the means of most projects, leaving the researchers to manage data on their own. •    How do you work with/analyze/manipulate/transform the data? •   Data files: Excel, SPSS, STATA, ArcGIS, txt, various public data sets Regardless of the name, the concepts in question and the issues … The researchers are not naïve; they understand that poor data management can be costly to their research and that access to greater technical expertise, through either a consultant or additional training, would be useful for their work. New York: Free Press. •    use this information to make curricular, policy, and funding recommendations for data curation practices. You will be able to bag maximum benefit out of it when you choose to invest in it. 2011. •    STATA •    Atlas.ti Ask the participant to narrate the process of completing the work from beginning to end. When data quality is maintained within every application, standardized data evaluation becomes reality. This scholar collects quantitative and qualitative data using face-to-face interviews, as well as secondary data sets. Science 331(6018): 719–721. Curry, Andrew. None of the scholars interviewed during this study expressed satisfaction with their level of expertise in data management, and few had access to individuals who could provide knowledgeable guidance. Background: The numerical data are analyzed in SPSS and Excel. 3.    Improved privacy and data access control are needed. Ensuring data governance success is only possible when a business treats data as an organizational asset. •    No contact with university data services The Clinical Neuropsychologist 25(6): 1029–1041. The data are diverse, including both physical and digital artifacts, and his tenure has spanned the migration of data collection from analog to “born digital” formats. But when organizations do not follow this approach, it means that they need extra cycles just to ensure ‘every data’ is in order. Study participants are using a variety of locations to store data and are employing many combinations of the various locations. •    What problems have you encountered while working with the data? •    Filemaker Pro As their research develops and they begin teaching, they are likely to regret neglecting data management. Universities should consider amending these policies to reflect the reality of multi-institutional research teams. These spaces would be particularly useful for graduate students and junior faculty who may not have their own labs. A practical model for fostering both collaboration and interoperability may be a network of local data specialists who are aligned with disciplines and/or affiliated with a regional or national scholarly organization. Multiple copies of the same records take a toll on the computation and storage, but may … The amount of data collected and analysed by companies and governments is goring at a frightening rate. The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently—and Why. Additional thanks goes to our many colleagues at CLIR who provided insightful commentary and support. The World’s Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information. For this reason, file formats, as well as the software and hardware platforms used to manage and manipulate data, tend to proliferate. •    Decision-making among Indian prime ministers: The policymaking process What formats do you work with? The objective of these series of articles is to obtain a clear idea of the benefits, needs and challenges involved in carrying out a Data Management initiative. Although she has significant experience working with secondary data sets, she has had no formal training in data curation. 2010. This scholar’s current project is a National Science Foundation (NSF)–funded, multi-institutional study of bone development and its relationship to the walking behavior of juvenile humans. c.    Researchers are unlikely to engage with those they do not view as peers. •    Architectural history and landscape (Europe) Perhaps one of the more complicated issues for data curation is the complex life cycle of research data and the idiosyncratic growth of research projects. Researchers typically align themselves with their disciplines rather than with their institutions; therefore, support models that extend beyond the university are likely to be especially beneficial. However, the researcher holds a master’s degree in both computer science and geology, giving him the combination of technical skills and deep disciplinary knowledge that is necessary for managing the data of the complex project he described. •    Do you conduct outreach as part of your curator responsibilities? The digital curator said that while the data have been prepared thus far principally for other researchers and therefore require an understanding of geological fieldwork to be meaningful, he envisions an “interactive geologic map” that would be useful to a wide audience. •    Where will they be held? 2011. •    How did you organize the data? •    Personal computers (usually multiple) Rarely does data collection take place within a discrete phase of a project (figure 1). These policies must go beyond the determination of who has access to which equipment to address the changing relationship of information to electronic identity and its influence on individual rights. •    Difficulty maintaining organizational structure of files, insufficient time for organizational tasks, •    Images: TIFF, raw, JPEG, KML (for display of geographic data) This means many organisations take a reactive approach to data management… Although digital technologies have brought new opportunities for researchers to create data sets that enable increasingly sophisticated analyses, haphazard data management and preservation strategies endanger the benefits that this advancement might bring. What they do is store all of that wonderful … The following sections summarize the most salient themes that emerged from the participant interviews. She is also interested in the potential for making public her qualitative interview results and notes, but has concerns about confidentiality and privacy. •    What kind of data sources did you use in this project? 2011), and improve public health and the delivery of care. •    Few researchers are aware of the data services that the library might be able to provide and seem to regard the library as a dispensary of goods (e.g., books, articles) rather than a locus for real-time research/professional support. 2011. Dropbox’s well publicized June 2011 security glitch, which left all Dropbox accounts open to access without a password for several hours, is indicative of this problem. Lawson adds, “As it turns out, data governance doesn’t have to be this all-encompassing, massive project. Like it or not, data consistency and accuracy drives the success of a data … Researchers report storing data in a variety of locations, including: Aggregated research data could make such efficiencies clear. By far, the most common strategy was to apply lessons learned in theory and methodology courses (e.g., statistics) and then learn by trial and error. Reaching the level of collaboration among universities and the technical interoperability required to capture and preserve a career’s worth of data in the current environment is a challenge. •    NVivo, Data types included various formats of images, video, audio files, data sets (public and original), documents (paper and digital), code packages, and analysis scripts. Gur, Ruben C., Farzin Irani, Sarah Seligman, et al. Given the lack of infrastructure for sharing and storing data, the social sciences may face similar problems of data loss in documenting social phenomena as researchers begin to work within larger collaborative groups and with larger data sets. The need to share files among researchers at multiple universities has also created problems. This participant went on to describe tools that could remediate some of these difficulties, suggesting networked databases that include tools for ingesting data according to schema designed for the project’s research questions. •    Policy (e.g., varying levels of access complicate workflows for research teams that include undergraduate and graduate students) This scholar’s project is the digital preservation and curation of approximately 18 years of research materials and geologic data collected in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Data Management projects will be transversal and will put in contact different departments of the organizations. For example, synthesizing social science, ecological, and hydrological data could help society cope with climate change (Overpeck et al. The tasks associated with conducting research under a data-intensive paradigm increase the pressure on already overextended research schedules. Managing large files presents significant challenges for researchers in that university infrastructures typically do not provide adequate storage space or sufficient bandwidth for data access (e.g., Participant #4-25-120511 could not store videos from interviews with study participants on university servers). However, metadata are not always held at every level of the file structure, and the members of the research team must consult the tracking spreadsheet, which sometimes creates confusion. The word "Big" in Big Data doesn't even come close to capturing what is happening today in our industry and what is yet to come. At some point in time, every data should be recycled. Hilbert, Martin, and Priscila López. As big data applications are expanding at a much faster pace, more and more businesses are choosing the path of digital transformation to maintain relevancy and stay abreast with the current trends. Standardizing and linking data from demographic studies, health surveillance systems, and pathogen-related studies could significantly improve the delivery of health care in remote areas that lack local medical expertise (Lang 2011). Taking a reactive approach to data management. •    What are your expectations for this re-use (e.g., citation, copies of papers, reciprocity)? This situation could occur in a collaboration in which all data is maintained by one collaborator. Because those things have a way of finding their way into your. In the first part of this three-part blog series, we look at three leading data management challenges: database performance, availability and security. Data preservation strategies not only must take into account these varied, proprietary, and non-standard data formats, but also must provide a real-time benefit for the scholar in meeting research goals. Cokol, Murat, Ivan Iossifov, Chani Weinreb, and Andrey Rzhetsky. Metadata and documentation are of interest only if they help a researcher complete his or her work. The purpose of this study is to gather a more complete and researcher-centered understanding of the data usage, management, and preservation practices of university-level faculty, postdoctoral researchers, and staff researchers. On Deep History and the Brain. Data silos. Approximately half of respondents reported … Additionally, analog data collection requires a significant investment of effort in data entry prior to the analysis phase. Technology honchos favor data governance program that allows data to be treated as a corporate asset by imposing rules, regulations, policies, and procedures but it’s often easier said than done. Some researchers also report that ethical concerns about the appropriate use of their data underlie their desire to maintain control over who can access the data. •    Office (for physical materials). Henrich, Joseph, Steven J. Heine, and Ara Norenzayan. Are you happy to trade … Science 221(4611): 609–613. This project is currently in progress, and the team envisions a wide range of potential audiences for the curated materials, including other researchers, the general public, and primary and secondary students. These specialists are likely to need significant technical training in addition to their subject knowledge. •    What were the goals of this project? Avoiding such a situation is possible when you are aware of the common mistakes in advance. Many a time, organizations ask the IT team to handle and manage the data governance initiatives. Rescue of Old Data Offers Lesson for Particle Physicists. Businesses across the globe are increasingly leaning on their data to power their everyday operations. Bone collections often have tight restrictions on their use and reuse. Data stored on personal media devices are especially vulnerable to this type of loss, as few scholars have the skills necessary to maintain data over time and across hardware and software platforms. The researcher is concerned about her skills in data management. Transcription files have been managed by means of flash drives and Google Docs. •    Who would potentially re-use this data? b.    Universities should revise their network policies to support multi-institutional research projects. •    Data curation for Antarctica McMurdo Dry Valleys (18 years of data): Documenting the magmatic plumbing system This task cannot be accomplished without the investment of the researchers themselves. •    Criminal justice policy analysis Failed investigations rarely receive the attention of a publication, but they do generate data that may indicate invalid approaches or the lack of merit in a particular line of inquiry. In some cases, a project does not work out as planned, and researchers recycle it into a new research idea or take it in a new direction entirely. •    What concerns do you have regarding publication methods? •    SharePoint •    Where are they located? Rzhetsky, Andrey, Ivan Iossifov, Ji Meng Loh, and Kevin P. White. •    Transformation of the welfare system in Turkey and the relationship to grassroots politics •    Hardware: University network, networked drives (within the lab), flash drives How/Where? And at some point, most unstructured data based in a data lake will need to be put in structured form in order to be analyzed. Citation and Peer Review of Data: Moving Towards Formal Data Publication. While these figures prove the fact right that big data is huge and it can do wonders for a business, its volatility can’t be ignored, and the road from adoption to action is actually rocky. Research workflow of a typical scholar showing the nonlinear development of research projects and the multiple stages at which data are collected. •    Few researchers, especially among those who are early in their career, think about long-term preservation of their data. For example, when the project needed chimpanzee bones to use for comparison with human bones, the researchers could not obtain samples locally. It has been seen that organizations have recognized the importance of big data and are treating data as an asset (probably one of the most valuable of all due to its ability to decide growth trajectory and ability to offer a competitive advantage over competitors), but have failed to draw any fruitful insights from it. For example, Participant #2-12-111011, Assistant Professor, Environmental Studies collected data on graffiti during fieldwork and then donated the data to another researcher (see Appendix C, case study #3). Challenges and Opportunities for Genomic Developmental Neuropsychology: Examples from the Penn-Drexel Collaborative Battery. Data silos are basically big data’s kryptonite. On the contrary, most participants reported feeling adrift when establishing protocols for managing their data and added that they lacked the resources to determine best practices, let alone to implement them. The researcher had taken the photos purely out of interest, and they were not directly relevant to her current research or future plans. As a result, popular fields may be overstudied while other lines of inquiry may be neglected entirely. Scholars need help with the technical aspects of managing and preserving data, as well as with basic curation issues (e.g., what to keep and what to delete), and the ethical implications of sharing their data (e.g., what is an appropriate latency period for the data and how does one balance the need to provide meaningful access with the risk of inadvertently exposing confidential participant information). Management practices support the volume, velocity, and hydrological data could help society cope with climate change ( et. 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